|Lincoln Mine (Climax
Mine) (ca.1891- ? ),
Located on the Western Pennsylvania Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Lincoln (Climax), West Wheatfield Twp., Indiana Co., PA
Owners: (ca.1891- ? ), Harris Coal & Coke Company,
(ca.1901- ? ), James Kerr Company, New York, New York
(ca.1904- ? ), Commonweath Coal & Coke Company, Philadelphia, PA
(ca.1905- ? ), Commonwealth Coal & Coke Company, Philadelphia, PA
Climax No. 1 Mine
Climax No. 2 Mine (ca.1916- ?
Climax No. 3 Mine
|A portion of the U.S.Geological Survey New Florence, PA
15min. quad Map 1922 ed. showing Climax and India along with the
Pennsylvania Railroad mainline and the Conemaugh Division.
(Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.)
The Village of Climax, in West Wheatfield Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania contained eleven nearly identical brick houses ca.1993, these house were originally built as coal company miners housing by the Harris Coal & Coke Company. The two-story brick houses are of stretcher-bond brick, and rest on stone foundations. Nine are topped with asphgalt-shingled hipped roofs, and the remaining three have front-gable shingled roofs, and are somewhat larger than the rest. These three houses could have been built for supervisors at the mines. The two-bay houses have entries and 2/2- light double-hung windows topped by segmental arches. A couple of the houses retain their original simple one-story full-length shed porches; most of the other porches have collapsed or have been severely altered. Each house has a plain brick flue at the center ridge. Most of the houses as in a linear row along the road from Centerville, but four are sited on the hillside behind. Several simple frame houses are located a little further northeast; these are the remaining structures from what was the late nineteenth century coal company patch town of Climax. All of the houses appear to have been substantially altered.
Climax is located on the east side of the Conemaugh River opposite Lockport.began as the town of Lincoln, laid out in 1891 by David Harris, who planned to build twenty-eight dwelling houses and a school building, it is not clear whether these plans were fully carried out or not. Harris owned a small coal mining company, known as Harris Coal & Coke Company. Possibly the first mine in Lincoln was the Lincoln Mine, which later became the Climax Mine. In ca.1901 the Lincoln Mine was owned by James Kerr Company of New York, New York, who could have been a bond holder of Harris Coal & Coke Company. The Harris Coal & Coke Company was the target of a coal miners strike in ca.1903.
In ca.1904 the Harris Coal & Coke Company reorganzied as the Commonwealth Coal & Coke Company. The Lincoln Mine was reopened as the Climax Mine ca.1904. The mine employed fifty-one men and boys in ca.1907 and produced nearly 26,000 tons of coal.
In ca.1914, Commonwealth Coal & Coke Company was operating two mines and had constructed a number of additional coal company houses in Climax.
The Bolivar Face Brick Company operated a mine at Climax from ca.1911 to ca.1917, at which point Commonwealth Coal & Coke Company took over operations.
Climax No. 1 Mine and Climax No. 2 Mine, both drift mines, had sixty-four men and boys employed in ca.1914. Gas and steam engines were utilized in the mines.
In ca.1917 the Climax No. 2 Mine produced 85,917 tons of coal , and employed 71 men and boys. The mine had 1 electric dynamo, which produced 100 kilo-watts of power, it used 5 mues and 2 electric locomotives to haul the coal.
The Climax Mines shut down ca.1942, after nearly 638,000 tons of Upper Freeport coal had been taken out. Approximately 188 acres have been mined out and lost, but a larger acreage adjacent to that area contains coal which is classified as measured coal. The coal bed is reported to have a normal thickness which ranges from 60 to 72 inches and a maximum local thickness up to 84 inches; reduction in thickness from the normal range is also reported. The coal bed is usually topped by from 8 to 10 inches of bony coal, and a persistent 3 inch binder occurs in the bed near the bottom; shale forms the immediate roof, and the cap rock is sandstone.
(History and description of Climax Mines, adapted with additional data from "Indiana County, Pennsylvania: An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites, 1993," America's Industrial Heitage Project, National Park Service, Historic American Buildings Survey / Historic American Engineering Record, U.S. Department of the Interior, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.)
|A photo taken in ca.1968 of one of the abandoned
coal company patch houses in Climax. These brick houses were erected by the
Harris Coal & Coke Company to house the miners working in the Climax
Mines. The houses were built with brick from the Bolivar Face Brick
Company, Bolivar, PA.
(Photo courtesy of the Special Collections Section, Library, Indiana University of Pennsylvania: Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal Company Media Collection, MG 94: Series III, Box 1 Photographs Folder: Abandoned Coal Towns-1968.)
Memorial, Climax Mines
Climax, West Wheatfield Twp., Indiana County, Pennsylvania"
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